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    An Applications Guide for OP A

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    上传日期: 2009-05-16

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    An ApplicaTIons Guide for OP Amps:1. IntroducTIon....3
    2. The InverTIng Amplifier.5
    3. The Non-InverTIng Amplifier...8
    4. The Unity-Gain Buffer...9
    5. Summing Amplifier11
    6. The Difference Amplifier.12
    7. Differentiator14
    8. Integrator.17
    9. Simple Low-pass Filter....19
    10. The Current-to-Voltage Converter21
    11. Photocell Amplifiers..23
    12. Precision Current Source...26
    13. Adjustable Voltage References....29
    14. The Reset Stabilized Amplifier33
    15. The Analog Multiplier35
    16. The Full-Wave Rectifier and Averaging Filter..38
    17. Sine Wave Oscillator.42
    18. Triangle-Wave Generator....44
    19. Tracking Regulated Power Supply....47
    20. Programmable Bench Power Supply49
    21. Conclusions52
    22. 附录 I Definition of Terms53
    23. References..54The general utility of the operational amplifier is derived from the fact that it is intended for use in a feedback loop whose feedback properties determine the feed-forward characteristics of the amplifier and loop combination. To suit it for this usage, the ideal operational amplifier would have infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, infinite gain and an open-loop 3 dB point at infinite frequency rolling off at 6dB per octave. Unfortunately, the unit cost–in quantity-–would also be infinite.
    Intensive development of the operational amplifier, particularly in integrated form, has yielded circuits which are quite good engineering approximations of the ideal for finite cost. Quantity prices for the best contemporary integrated amplifiers are low compared with transistor prices of five years ago. The low cost and high quality of these amplifiers allows the implementation of equipment and systems functions impractical with discrete components. An example is the low frequency function generator which may use 15 to 20 operational amplifiers in generation, wave shaping, triggering and phase-locking.
    The availability of the low-cost integrated amplifier makes it mandatory that systems and equipments engineers be familiar with operational amplifier applications. This paper will present amplifier usages ranging from the simple unity-gain buffer to relatively complex generator and wave shaping circuits. The general theory of operational amplifiers is not within the scope of this paper and many excellent references are available in the literature.1,2,3,4 The approach will be shaded toward the practical, amplifier parameters will be discussed as they affect circuit performance, and application restrictions will be outlined.
    The applications discussed will be arranged in order of increasing complexity in five categories: simple amplifiers, operational circuits, transducer amplifiers, wave shapers and generators, and power supplies. The integrated amplifiers shown in the figures are for the most part internally compensated so frequency stabilization components are not shown; however, other amplifiers may be used to achieve greater operating speed in many circuits as will be shown in the text. Amplifier parameter definitions are contained in Appendix I.


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